ASTRONOMICAL CURIOSITY

SUN :

ECLIPSES :

  • Maximum number of eclipse in one year: 7 (5 of Sun + 2 of Moon)
  • Least number of eclipse in one year:4 (2 of Sun + 2 of Moon)
  • Maximum lenght of the totality of an eclipse of Sun: 7 minutes 36 second
  • Maximum lenght of the phase of anularity of an eclipse of Sun: 12 minutes 30 second
  • Maximum width of the path of totality: 272 km
  • The first prediction of an eclipse of Sun: Talete, May 25 th 585
  • The first recording of an eclipse of Sun: 2136 B.C.
  • The first observation of the corona during an eclipse of Sun: Plutarco
  • The first observation of the pearls of Baily: Halley, 01/03/1737
  • The first photo of the pearls of Baily: Hines, 07/08/1869
  • The first observation of the flying shades: Goldschmidt, 1820
  • The first attempt of photo of an eclipse: Majocchi, 08/07/1842
  • The first photos of an eclipse: Berkowski, 28/07/1851
  • Maximum number of total eclipse of Moon in one year: 3
  • The longest phase of totality of an eclipse of Moon: 106 minutes
  • The longest lunar eclipse: 236 minutes
  • The greatest magnitude of an eclipse of Moon: 1.882, the 05/06/2756
  • The longest eclipse of Moon included the penumbra: 379 minutes
  • The longest path of a solar eclipse, 20/09/-60

MOON :

  • The first supposition of mountains on the Moon: Democrito (460-370 B.C.)
  • The first paper of the Moon with naked eyes: 1600
  • The first telescopic paper of the Moon: Harriot, 160
  • The first explanation of the ashy light: Leonardo from Vinci (1452 -1519)
  • The first system of lunar coordinates : Mayer, 1775
  • Discovery of the synchronous rotation: G.D.Cassini, 1693
  • The greatest lunar paper drawn by a visual observer: H.Wilkins, 762 cms
  • The first photo: J.W.Draper
  • The first observation of a LTF: 3 November 1958
  • The first measure of the temperature on the surface: Lord Rosse, 1869
  • The first echis radar on the Moon: Z.Bay, 1946
  • The greatest sea: sea of the Rain, 1300 km of diameter
  • The greatest crater: Baily, 295 km, deep 4 km
  • The deepest crater: Newton 8.85 km
  • The brightest crater: Aristarco
  • The greatest radiated crater: Tycho
  • The first attempt of forwarding a probe toward the Moon: Able 1, August 17 th 1958
  • The first probe that was successful: Luna 1, January 2 nd 1959
  • The first probe to land: Luna 2, September 13 th 1959
  • The first photo of the hidden side: Luna 3, October 1959
  • The first soft landing: Luna 9, January 31 st 1966
  • The first lunar satellite: Luna 10, March 31 st 1966
  • The first flight with crew around the Moon: Apollo 8, December 1968
  • The first landing on the Moon: Apollo 11, July 20 th 1969
  • The first probe without crew to bring on the Earth lunar rocks: Luna 16, September 12 th 1970
  • The first tracked vehicle on the Moon: Lunachod 1, Luna 17, November 17 th 1970
  • The first lunar auto: Lunar Rover, Apollo 15, July 30 th 1971

MERCURY :

  • The most ancient observation: Tolomeo, November 15 th 265 B.C.
  • Discovery of the phases: Hevelius, The first '600
  • The first prediction of a transit: 7 November 1631
  • The first telescopic observations: Herschel
  • The first paper: G.V.Schiapparelli, 1881
  • Good paper: Antoniadi, 1934
  • Theory of the synchronous rotation: W.E.Howard, 1962
  • The first probe toward Mercury: Mariner 10, November 3 rd 1973

VENUS :

  • The first observations: Babylonians
  • The first supposition of correlation between phases and brightness: Halley, 1721
  • Discoverer of the phases: Galileo Galilei, 1610
  • The first prediction of a solar transit: Keplero, 1627
  • The first documented observation of a transit: J.Horrocks and W.Crabtree, November 2 nd 1639
  • The only occultation observed of Mercury by Venus: M.Maestlin, October 3 rd 1590
  • The only occultation observed of Mars by Venus: J.Bevis, 17 May 1737
  • The first observations of the ashy light of Venus, G.B.Curls, 9 January 1643
  • The first studies on the atmosphere: M.V.Lomonosov, 1761
  • The first telescopic observations: J.H. Schroter, 1779
  • The first esteem of the period of rotation: G.D.Cassini, 1666
  • The first supposition of synchronous rotation: G.V.Schiapparelli, 1890
  • The first substance discovered in the Venus's atmosphere: carbonic anhydride, W.S.Adams, in the 1932
  • The first measures of the temperature of the surface: E.Pettit and S.B.Nicholson, 1923
  • The first radar contact: the Lincoln's researchers laboratory, in 1962
  • The first sent probe: Venera 1, February 12 th 1962
  • The first succeeded mission: Mariner 2, August 6 th 1962
  • The first landed probe: Venera 3 March 1 st 1963
  • The first probe that has transmitted information: Venera 4, October 18 th 1967
  • The first probe that has transmitted information from surface: Venera 7, 15 December 1970
  • The first photos of the clouds: Mariner 10, 5 February 1974
  • The first photos from the surface: Venera 9, October 21 st 1975
  • The first accurate paper of the surface: probe Pioneer, 1977

MARS :

  • The first observations of Mars: Egyptians, Babylonians and Assyrian
  • The first occultation observed of Mars by the Moon: Aristotele (384-322a.C)
  • The first precise observations of the position of Mars: Tolomeo, January 17 th 272 B.C.
  • The best pretelescopic observations: Tycho Brahe 1576
  • The first telescopic observations: Galileo, 1610
  • Discovery of the phases: Galileo, 1610
  • The first telescopic drawing: F.Fountain, 1632
  • The first recorded particular: Syrtis Maior, Huygens, November 28 th 1659
  • The first exact esteem of the period of rotation: Huygens, December 1 st 1659
  • The first exact measure of the period of rotation: G.D.Cassini, 1666
  • The first observation of the polar caps: G.D.Cassini, 1666
  • Determination of the inclination of the axle of rotation: Herschel
  • The first supposition of presence of clouds on Mars: H.Flaugergues, 1881
  • The first observations of craters: E.Barnard, 1892
  • The first esteem on the temperature of the surface: Nicholson and Pettit, 1909
  • The first analyses of the martian atmosphere with method Doppler: W.S.Adams and T.Dunham, 1933
  • Discovery of carbonic anhydride in the atmosphere: G.P.Kuiper, 1947
  • The first attempt to send a probe toward Mars: Mars 1, 1962
  • The first probe sent with success: Mariner 4, 1965
  • The tallest volcano: mountain Olympus, 25 km, circumference to the base 600 km
  • The deepest basin: Hellas, measure 2200 km x 1800 km and 3 km is deep
  • The longest Valley: Valles Marineris, 4300 km, maximum width 600 km, maximum depth 7
  • The first seeks of martian satellite: W.Herschel, 1783
  • The first discovered satellite: Deimos, from A.Hall, on August 10 1877
  • Discovery of the irregular form of Phobos: Mariner 7, 1969
  • Discovery of the craters on the satellites: Mariner 9, 1971
  • The greatest crater on Phobos: Stickney, 5km

JUPITER :

  • Discovery that Jupiter is not a sun in miniature: H.Jeffreys, 1923
  • Discovery of the differential rotation of Jupiter: G.D.Cassini, 1690
  • Discovery of methane and ammonia in the atmosphere: R.Wildt, 1932
  • The first model of planet of hydrogen: W.Ramsey, 1951
  • The first hypotheses of liquid planet: G.W.Hough, 1771
  • The first probe toward Jupiter: Pioneer 10, March 2 nd 1972

SATURN :

  • The first dated observations: Mesopotamia, 650 B.C.
  • The first famous observatories: Copernico, April 24 th 1514, Tycho Brahe, August 18 th 1563
  • The first telescopic observation: Galileo, 1610
  • The most ancient drawing: Pierre Gassendi, 19 July 1633
  • Discovery of the rings: C.Huygens, 1656
  • Discovery of the division of Cassini: G.D.Cassini, 1675
  • Hypotheses that the rings are not solid: J.Cassini, 1875
  • Discovery of the flattening of Saturn: W.Herschel, 1789
  • Discovery of the division of Encke: J.F.Encke, 1837
  • Discovery of the ring C: W.Bond, 1850
  • Discovery of the transparency of the ring C: Lassel, 1852
  • Explanation of the divisions in the system of rings: D.Kirckwood, 1866
  • The first discovery of a bright spot on the disk: A.Hall, 8 December 1876
  • Demonstration that Saturn is not a sun in miniature: H.Jeffres, 1923
  • Discovery of methane and ammmoniaca in the atmosphere: T.Dunham, 1932

URANUS :

  • It is the first planet to have been open The first after the introduction of the telescope
  • The first recording of Uranus: J.Flamsteed, December 23 rd 1690,he identified it as a star
  • The first discoverer : W.Herschel, March 13 th 1781,he exchanged it for a comet
  • The first recognition: J.Desamon and A.Lexell in May 1781
  • The first to propose the name Uranus: J.E.Bode
  • The first attempt of measure of the diameter: Herschel, 1781
  • The first observation of an occultation of Uranus from the Moon: August 6 th 1824, sir. John Rust
  • The first esteem of the period of rotation: J. Houzeau, 1856
  • The first relationship on particular perceived on the disk: J.Buffham, January 25 th 1870
  • The first observation of the dark lines in the spectrum: A.Buckets, 1869
  • The first really good tables of its motion: 1875, S.Newcomb
  • The first spettroscopical confirms of the retrograde rotation: R.Mecke, 1933
  • The first model of Uranus: R.Wildt, 1934
  • The first photos of the rings: 1978, from Mountain Palomar
  • The first discovered satellites: Oberon and Miranda, Herschel, 11 January 1787
  • The last visually discovered satellite: Miranda, February 16 th 1948, from G.Kuiper
  • The first inner satellite discovered: Puck, Voyager 2, December 30 th 1985
  • The first probe to visit Uranus: Voyager 2, January 24 th 1986

NEPTUNE :

  • The first planet to be discovered with the mathematical calculation: Neptune
  • The first documented observation: J.Lalande, May 8 th 1795,he identified it as a star
  • The first uncertain observation : Galileo, December 1612
  • The first hypotheses of a planet over Uranus: T.J.Hussey, 17 November 1833
  • The first project of search: F.W.Bessel, 1840
  • The first esteemed position: J.C.Adams, October 21 st 1845, but he didn't look for it!
  • The first identification: Galls and H.D'Arrest, September 23 rd 1846, on the base of calculations of Le Verrier
  • Existence of a ring: suspected by W.Lassel, October 14 th 1846, but he mistook
  • Discovery of Triton: W.Lassel, 1846
  • Discovery of Nereide: Kuiper, May 1 st 1849
  • The first probe that reached Neptune: Voyager 2, August 1989

PLUTO :

  • The first search of a transnettunian planet: David Peck Todd, 1877
  • The first photographic search: P.Lowell, from the 1905
  • Discovery of Pluto: C.Tombaugh, January 23 rd 1929
  • The first measure of the diameter: Kuiper, 1949
  • The first occultation observed of a star: 1965
  • The first measurement of the period of rotation: R.Hardie, 1955
  • The first discoverer of a satellite: W.Christy, 22 June 1978
  • Discovery of the atmosphere: 1980

COMETS :

  • The first telescopic observation: J.Cysat, 1618
  • The first comet of which the return was foretold: Halley
  • The first sure observation of the Halley: 240 B.C.
  • The first drawing published of the comet of Halley: 684
  • The first attempt to observe a transit of a comet on the Sun: F.Ellerman, May 18 th 1910, but he failed
  • The first comet documented fall on the Sun: 1979 Howard-Kooman-Michelses
  • The first short period comet of which the return has been anticipated: Encke
  • Comet with the greatest number of observed return: Encke
  • The first documented passage of the Earth in the tail of a comet: 1861, Tabbut
  • The first discovered comet during an eclipse of Sun: Tewfik, 1882
  • The first attempt of photo: W.de the Rue, 1861
  • The first photo of a comet: sir David Gill, 1882
  • The first green comet: Jurlov-Achmarov-Hassel, 1939
  • Discovery of a cloud of hydrogen of a comet: Tago-Sato-Kosaka, 1969
  • The first comet to have been approached by a probe: Giacobini-Zinner, 1985

METEORS :

  • Maximum speed in atmosphere: 72 km/s
  • Total number of the meteors that daily enters atmosphere under the mag.6: 75 million
  • Existence of meteor shower: Olmsted and Qwining, 1864
  • Discoverer of the shower of the Leonidis: H.A.Newton
  • Discoverer of the shower of the Perseidis: Quetelet, 1836
  • Greatest shower: Leonidi
  • The first radian to be measured: Leonidi, 12 November 1833
  • The first suggestion of connection between meteors and comets: D.Kirkwood, 1861
  • The first measures of the height of the meteors with the method of the triangulation: Brandes and Benzenberg, 1798
  • The first photos of a meteor: L.Weinek, November 27 th 1885, an andromedide
  • The first measures radar of meteors: Hey and Stewart, 1945
  • The most sure rain: Perseidi

METEORITES :

  • The most ancient data on the meteoric phenomena: Egyptian papyruses 2000 B.C.
  • The most ancien meteorite datable with safety: Ensisheim, November 16 th 1492
  • The greatest meteoric crater: Meteor Crater, Arizona, 1265 meters diameter, 115 ms of depth
  • The greatest tectite than is known: Muong nong, Laos, 1932 3.7 kg
  • The first scientific test of fall of meteorites: j.B.Biut, 26 April 1803
  • The greatest known meteorite: Hoba West, Africa, 60 tons
  • The greatest aerolite: Kirin, Manciuria, March 8 th 1970, 1766 kg
  • The only meteorite (or asteroid) entered and gone out of the atmosphere: August 10 th 1972, speed 10 km / s, Utah and Montana

AURORAS AND OTHER BRIGHT PHENOMENA :

  • The first use of the term aurora: P.Gassendi, 12 novebres 1621
  • The first really good description of a northern aurora: K.Gesner, December 27 th 1560
  • The first really good description of an Antarctic aurora: captain Cook, 20 February 1771
  • The first suggestion of the existence of an association between polar auroras and electric discharges: Halley, 1716
  • The first suggestion of the connection between auroras and magnetic effects: H.J.Orter, 1741
  • The first suggestion of a bond between auroras and sunspots: And.Loomis, 1870
  • The maximum activities of the auroras: 68░ north and south
  • Discovery of the zodiacal light: G.D.Cassini, 1683
  • Definition of the Gegenschein: Esprit Pezenas, 1731
  • Theory of the green lightning: W.Swan, September 13 th 1865
  • The first essay in subject: J.P.Joule, 1869

STARS :

  • The nearest star: Proxima centaurs, 4,28 years light
  • Star with the really more elevated motion: star of Barnard 10.32"/year
  • The brightest star within 13 years light: Sirio A, both as apparent brightness and as absolute shine
  • The first predictions of invisible stars: F.W.Bessel, 1844, calculated the positions of the companions of Sirio and Procione
  • The first discovery of invisible stars: Clark, sirio B, 1862
  • The first attempt to classify the stars according to their spectrum: A.Buckets, 1863
  • Introduction of the aforesaid classification: E.Pickering, 1890
  • Diagram H-R: E.Hertzsprung 1911, H.W.Russel 1913
  • The first dwarf brown identified: B.Zuckerman, 1987, were l Giclas 29-38
  • Theory of stars of neutrons: it was proposed by the Russian physicist Landau in 1932
  • The first star of neutrons : Jocelyn Bell, 1967
  • The first pulsar to be identified with an optic object: NP0532, nebula of the crab
  • The first pulsar note with a period of the order of the millisecond: PSR 1937-215, in the constellation Volpetta 1.55 ms
  • The first identification of a star surrounded by a planetary disk : R.Thmpson, P.Stritmatter, 1977
  • The first star discovery with an infrared excess: Vega, H.Aumann and F.Gillet, 1983
  • The first star double discovered with a telescope: alpha Crucis, Guy Tachard, 1685
  • The first catalog of double stars: C.Mayer, 1871
  • The first hypotheses of double that interact among them: J.Michell, 1767
  • The first demonstration of binary symbiosis: Herschel, 1802
  • The first measurement succeeded of a stellar distance: F.Bessel, 1838, with 61 Cygnis
  • The first calculation of an orbit in a binary system: F.Savary, 1830, zeta Ursa Maior
  • The first spettroscopical binary : E.Pickering, 1889, binary Mizar Az
  • The first spettroscopical stars studied: F.Bessel, 1844, Sirio and Procione
  • The first white dwarf companion of a binary: Clark, 1862, Sirio B
  • The first eclipsing binary: E.Montanari, 1669, Algol
  • The first dwarf binary white: W.Luyten, 1873
  • The first binary star of neutrons: July 1974
  • The first binary sistem composed by X rays stars: 1970
  • The first variable star discovered: Holwarda, 1638, Mira

COSMOS :

  • The first spiral galaxy to be discovered: III Conte of Ross, 1845, M51
  • The first discoverer of interstellar matter in our galaxy: Hartmann, 1904
  • The first indication of an universe in expansion: V.M.Slipher, 1912
  • The first quasar to be identified: 3C-273 in the Virgo, 1962
  • The first quasar to be discovered in the infrared: 3C-345 from P.Harvey, in 1982

CONSTELLATIONS :

  • The greatest constellation: Idra, 1303 degrees square
  • The smallest constellation: Crux, 68 degrees square
  • The constellation with more stars up to the mag.2: Orione, 5 stars
  • The constellation with more stars up to the mag.4: Orsa Maggiore, 19 stars
  • The constellation with more stars up to the mag.5: Centauro, 49 stars
  • The only constellation with any star under the magnitude 5: Mensa
  • The constellation with the highest density of stars under the mag.5: Crux, 19 stars/100 degrees square
  • The brightest star: Sirio
  • The brightest star of the northern hemisphere: Arturo
  • The most visible green star : beta Librae
  • The most visible red star: mu Cephei

ASTRONOMIC OBSERVATORIES AND TELESCOPES :

  • The most ancient astronomic observatory whose building is still standing: chomson-dae, Korea south, 632 ds.C.
  • The most ancient European observatory: Kassel, Germany, 1561
  • The first national observatory: Denmark, 1637
  • The first Italian observatory: University of Bologna, 1725
  • The first spatial telescope: Hubble, 238 cms of diameter, in orbit from April 25 th 1990
  • The first spyglass: in Holland, 1608
  • The first reflector: I.Newton, 1671
  • The first planetarium: Gottorp, Denmark, 1654
  • The first modern planetarium: Bonn, 1923

VARIA :

  • The first discovered source of gamma rays: 1969, in Sagittarius
  • The first interplanetary revealing of X rays: on the Apollo 15 and 16
  • The first satellites for the study of the gamma rays: SAS II (1972) and COS B (1975)
  • Discovery of radio waves coming from the space: K.Jansky, 1931
  • The first radiotelescope: Grote Reber, 1940
  • Discovery of radio waves coming from the Sun: J.S.Hey, 1942
  • The first open radiosource discovered out of the solar system: Cygnus A, 1946
  • The first optic identification of external radiosorgenti to the solar system: Taurus A, 1949
  • The first identified planet as source radio: Jupiter, 1955
  • Discovery of the solar infrared radiation: W.Herschel, 1801
  • The first search in the infrared: G.Neugerbauer R.Leighton, 1960
  • The first satellite in the infrared: IRAS, 25 January 193
  • Existence of ultraviolet radiation of the Sun: J.Ritter, 1801
  • The first spettrografo in the ultraviolet: launched by White Sands, Mexico, June 28 th 1946
  • The first observations of X rays coming from the space: R.Burnright, August 5 th 1948
  • The first source of X rays optically identified: nebula of the Crab, March 1966
  • The first satellite for observations in X rays: launched by Uhuru, December 12 th 1970
  • The first open nova with issue of X rays: Centaurus X-4, May 1969
  • The first satellite for observations in the rays x launched by the ESA: EXOSAT, May 26 th 1983